Measurements of spinal loads with mathematical models
We now know that back pain is partly due to an overloading of the spine, particularly due to specific activities in competitive sports or even when lifting heavy loads at work. However, a complete direct measurement of spinal loading is not possible until now. Indirect measurements give information such as the change in height after the change of body position, the intra-abdominal pressure, the intradiscal pressure, electromyographic signals from muscles and the loading of implants to stabilize the spine. Because measuring methods have proven to be extremely difficult, we also use mathematical models. After appropriate validity check this can provide information on forces acting in different spinal regions and adjacent muscles.